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BG视讯网——ZHONGGUOKEXUEYUANBANYUANFANGZHEN

BG视讯网  > 学者风采

与“时间”“空间”打了一辈子交道,93岁的叶叔华仍在“仰望星空”

她的名字与“北京时间”联系在一起

2019-11-23 解放日报 黄海华
【字体:

YUYINBOBAO

YESHUHUAZAIBANGONGSHIYUEDUZUIXINDEKEJIWENZHANG。HUANGHAIHUA SHE

  人物小传

  BG视讯网叶叔华,女,1927年6月21日出生于广东省广州市。1949年毕业于中山大学数学天文系。1951年,进入中国科学院紫金山天文台徐家汇观象台。1980年,当选为中国科学院学部委员(院士)。1981年,任上海天文台台长。

  TAZHUCHIJIANLIHEFAZHANLEBGSHIXUNWANGGUOZONGHESHIJIESHIXITONGBINGZHANGQIBAOCHIGUOJIXIANJINSHUIPING,WEIGUOMINJINGJIHEGUOFANGBGSHIXUNWANGZUOCHULEZHONGDAGONGXIAN。TAFUZEJIANLILEBGSHIXUNWANGGUOSHENZHANGJIXIANGANSHECELIANG(VLBI)WANG,BUJINZAITIANWENDIQIUDONGLIXUEYANJIUFANGMIAN,HAIZAI“TANYUE”“TANHUO”GONGCHENGZHONG,FAHUILEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

  ZHIDAOXIANZAI,93SUIDEYESHUHUAYUANSHIYIJIUMEITIANCHUXIANZAIZHONGKEYUANSHANGHAITIANWENTAIDEBANGONGSHI,YUEDUZUIXINDEKEJIWENZHANG。TAZAIGOUXIANG,ZAIJULIDIQIU9000GONGLIWAIDETAIKONG,JIANLIANGGEKOUJING30MIDESHEDIANWANGYUANJING,CIJUJIANGKAICHUANGKONGJIANDIPINSHEDIANXINLINGYU。

  XIONGZHONGYOUTAOLVE。ZHEIWEIZHANLVEKEXUEJIAZONGZAIYIXIEGUANJIANSHIKE,GAOZHANYUANZHU,GANWEIRENXIAN。

  “时间”背后的意义

  YESHUHUADEMINGZIYU“BEIJINGSHIJIAN”LIANXIZAIYIQI。DANZAINEIZHIQIAN,DUIYUKUZAOFAWEIDE“SHIJIAN”CELIANG,TAYIDUXIANGYAOFANGQI,ZHIDAOSHOULELIANGCI“CIJI”——

  SHANGSHIJI50NIANDAI,ZHONGGUOHENDUOSHENGFENHAIMEIYOUJINGQUECELIANG,3WANCEHUIGONGZUORENYUANBENBOZAIQUANGUOGEDI。ERCEHUILIBUKAITIANWENSHOUSHI,RUGUOSHIJIANCEDEBUZHUN,DITUJIUPINBUQILAI。ZHEIJIUHAOBIWASUIDAO,CONGSHANDEYICEWAGUOQU,NEIBIANWAGUOLAI,JIEGUOLIANGBIANQUEBUNENG“XIANGYU”。DANGSHIDESHIJIANXINXIYOUSHANGHAITIANWENTAIFUZETIGONG,YIWEICEHUIZHUANJIAPIPING: “BUYONGNIMENDEJIEGUOHAIHAO,YONGLENIMENDEJIEGUO,FANERBABGSHIXUNWANGDEGONGZUODOUGAOHUAILE。”

  YESHUHUADANGSHIFUZEJIGUOJISHIJIANJUJISONGXUJIAHUIGUANXIANGTAIDECESHIJIEGUO,YICIDUIFANGLAIXINXUNWEN,WEIHETIGONGDESHUJUMEIBANGEYUEHUIYOUBODONG?YESHUHUAZHUOMOHOUFAXIAN,YOUGE15TIANZHOUQIDEXIUZHENGZHIMEIYOUJIAJINQU,YIQIANJINGQUEDUDIYINGXIANGBUDA,DANSUIZHECESHIJINGDUDETIGAO,YINGXIANGJIUDALE。ZHEIGEXIUZHENGZHI,20DUONIANLAIJINGDOUMEIYOURENZHUYIDAO。

  SHIJIANCELIANG,SUIKUZAOQUEDAYOUYIYI。1958NIAN,YESHUHUATIAOQILECHOUJIANBGSHIXUNWANGGUOSHIJIESHIZONGHEXITONGDEZHONGDAN。DAOLE1964NIAN,BGSHIXUNWANGDESHIJIESHIXITONGDADAOSHIJIEDIERMING,1966NIANCHUZHENGSHIZUOWEIBGSHIXUNWANGGUODESHIJIANJIZHUNXIANGQUANGUOFASONG,ZHEIJIUSHIHOULAIDE“BEIJINGSHIJIAN”。

  前瞻性推动技术转换

  HUOXINGJUDIQIUZUIYUANSHIDA4YIGONGLI,RUHEJINGZHUNQUEDINGZHONGGUOSHOUGEHUOXINGTANCEQI“TIANWENYIHAO”DESHISHIWEIZHI?SHENZHANGJIXIANGANSHECELIANG(VLBI)CEGUIFENXITONGFAHUILEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。YESHUHUAZHENGSHIZHEIYIJISHUZAIBGSHIXUNWANGGUOFAZHANDETUIDONGZHE,SHIDEZHONGGUOZHUAZHULESHIJIETIANWENGUANCEJISHUZHUANHUANDEDAHAOSHIJI。

BG视讯网  1970NIAN,YESHUHUAHUIFUGONGZUODEDIYIJIANSHI,JIUSHIPAODAOTUSHUSHIKANGUOWAITONGXINGZAIZUOSHENME。TALEJIEDAO,1966NIAN,VLBIDEFENBIANLVBICHUANTONGGUANCEYIQITIGAOLEJISHIBEI,ERQIEBUXUYAODIANLAN,GEGETIANWENTAIZHANJIEZHUYUANZIZHONGJIUKEYILIANJIEQILAI,XIANGJUKEDAJIQIANGONGLI。GENGRANGYESHUHUAZHENFENDESHI,ZHEIYIJISHULIYONGKONGJIANSHEDIANYUAN,YINHEXIWAIYENENGGUANCEDAO。

BG视讯网  YOUYUZHEISHIYIXIANGXINJISHU,CHENGBENYOUBIJIAOGAO,JISHIZAIYIXIEFADAGUOJIAYEXIANYOURENWENJIN。DANYESHUHUAMINRUIDIKANDAOLETADEYINGYONGQIANJING,1973NIAN,TATICHULEFAZHANVLBIDEJIHUA。1981NIAN10YUE,YESHUHUADANRENSHANGHAITIANWENTAITAIZHANG,VLBIXIANGMUZHENGSHISHANGMA。

BG视讯网  DANGSHI,KEYANJINGFEIBUZU,ERVLBIZHISHAOXUYAOYIGE25MIKOUJINGDEWANGYUANJING,TAPAODAODANGSHIDEDISIJIXIEGONGYEBUXUNWENYIWEICHUZHANGNENGFOUJIANZAO,DUIFANGTOUYEBUTAI、ZHANDINGJIETIEDISHUOBUXING。YESHUHUAZAITAMIANQIANMOMODIZHANLEYIKEZHONG,GANDONGLEZHEIWEICHUZHANG,YUEHAODIERTIANQUJIANBULINGDAO。WANGYUANJINGYOULEZHELUO,JIEXIALAIJIUSHIXUANZHI,YESHUHUATICHUYAOZAIWULUMUQIJIANVLBIZHANDIAN,ZHEIRANGHENDUORENXIANGBUTONG。DANGSHIWULUMUQIZHIYOUYIGEGUANCERENZAOWEIXINGDEXIAOZHAN,JISHUXIANGDUIBORUO,ERKUNMINGYOUYIGECHENGSHUDETIANWENTAI,JIANZAONANDUGENGXIAO。DUICI,YESHUHUAXIANGDEZHANGYUAN,SHANGHAIDAOKUNMING1000DUOGONGLI,DAOWULUMUQISHI3000DUOGONGLI,YAOLIZHENGJINKENENGGAODEFENBIANLV,ZHEIGELIANWANGDEJULIJIUYAOJINKENENGYUAN,RUGUOYIHOUHAIYAOHEOUZHOULIANWANG,GENGYINGGAIJIANZAIWULUMUQI。

  SHISHIZHENGMING,YESHUHUADEPANDUANSHIDUIDE。GUOJITIANWENXUEHUIHEGUOJIDADICELIANGXUEHUIXUANBU,CONG1988NIANQIQUANBUCAIYONGVLBI、JIGUANGCERENZAOWEIXINGHEGPSDENGXINJISHU,TONGSHIFEICHUYUANLAIDEGUANCEJISHU。RUGUODANGCHUMEIYOUYUGUDAOZHEIYIQUSHI,BGSHIXUNWANGGUODESHIJIANCELIANGYOUSHIJIANGBUFUCUNZAI。

BG视讯网  SHANGSHIJI90NIANDAI,BGSHIXUNWANGGUOQIDONG“TANYUEGONGCHENG”,ZHIQIANBGSHIXUNWANGGUOHANGTIANQIZUIYUANZHIQUGUO8WANGONGLIYUANDETAIKONG,ERDIYUEZHIJIANYOU38WANGONGLI。DANGSHIMIANLINYIGEJISHOUDENANTI,WEIXINGFEIDAOYUEQIUFUJINYAOGAIBIANGUIDAO,XUYAOFEICHANGJINGQUEDEKONGJIANCELIANG。YESHUHUAHESHANGHAITIANWENTAITONGSHIPAODAOBEIJINGZHUDONGQINGYING,DANGTASHUOCHU“10FENZHONGNEIBAVLBICEGUIJIEGUOBAODAOBEIJINGZONGBU”SHI,XIANCHANGYIPIANJIJING,YOUCHIJING,GENGYOUHUAIYI。2007NIAN,“CHANGEYIHAO”WEIXINGFASHE,SHIJIZHIYONGLE6FENZHONGWANCHENGVLBICEGUI,DAOLE“CHANGESIHAO”HE“TIANWENYIHAO”,GENGSHISUODUANDAOLE1FENZHONG。

BG视讯网  SHESHANJIAOXIA,“TIANMA”WANGYUANJINGJINGJINGCHULIZHE。WEIGENGHAODIFAHUIVLBIWANGDEZUOYONG,YESHUHUAZAICIGAOZHANYUANZHUDITICHUBGSHIXUNWANGSHANGHAI65MIQUANFANGWEIKEDONGDESHEDIANWANGYUANJING。2013NIAN12YUE,“TIANMA”QUANCHENGCANJIALE“CHANGESANHAO”SHISHIGUANCE,SHIBGSHIXUNWANGGUOVLBIWANGDELINGMINDUTIGAOZHI2.6BEIYISHANG。“WEILAIBUGUANHANGTIANQIDAOMUXING、TUXINGHUOSHITAIYANGXIBIANYUAN,CEGUIDOUBUZAIHUAXIA。”YESHUHUAHUALITOUZHEZIHAO。

  中国要掌握更多主动权

  SHUXIYESHUHUADEREN,DOUNENGBEIDECHUTADEYIJUKOUTOUSHAN: BANYIJIANSHI,JIASHEZHIYOU40%DEBAWO,RUGUOTINGZAINEILIBUDONG,JIUHUIMANMANBIANCHENG20%DEBAWO,ZUIHOUBIANWEILING。DANJIJIZHENGQU,KEYIJIANGQIBIANCHENG60%、70%,ZUIHOUJIANGSHIQINGBANCHENG。TUOHUANG“WURENQU”,YIZHISHITAXINGGEZHONGDEZHONGYAOTEZHI。

BG视讯网  1988NIAN,YESHUHUACHENGWEIDIYIGEDANGXUANGUOJITIANWENXUEHUIFUZHUXIDEZHONGGUOTIANWENXUEJIA。SHANGSHIJI90NIANDAI,YIXIEZHUCHIGUOJIKONGJIANDUIDIGUANCEHEZUOXIANGMUDEGUOJIA,XIWANGZHONGGUOJIANGENGDUODEGUANCEZHAN,RANHOUBASUOYOUSHUJUJITAMEN。“ZHONGGUOYEYAOQIANTOUZHUCHIGUOJIHEZUOJIHUA,ZHANGWOGENGDUODEZHUDONGQUAN。”ZHONGGUODEDIZHIZAIHAIHENDUO,YESHUHUABUJINKAICHUANGLEBGSHIXUNWANGGUOTIANWENDIQIUDONGLIXUEDEYANJIU,HAICHANGDAOLE“YATAIDIQUKONGJIANDIQIUDONGLIXUEYANJIUJIHUA”。DANYAOZHENZHENGSHISHIZHEIYIJIHUA,HAIDEXUNQIUGUOJIZUZHIDEZHICHI。1995NIAN,GUOJIDADICELIANGHEDIQIUWULILIANHEHUIZAIMEIGUOZHAOKAI。JIHUINANDE,YESHUHUAZUZHILEYIGETAOLUNHUI,GEGUOZHUANJIAZHENDUIZHEIYIJIHUATICHULEHENDUOWENTI,TA“SHEZHANQUNRU”YINGDELEZHICHI。GUOJIDADICELIANGXIEHUIQUEDINGYOUYESHUHUALINGXIANZHEIXIANGJIHUA,ZHEISHIDIYIGEYOUZHONGGUOKEXUEJIAZHUCHIDEGUOJITIANWENHEZUOJIHUA。

BG视讯网  YANXIA,SHANGHAITIANWENTAIZHENGQIANTOU“PINGFANGGONGLIZHENLIESHEDIANWANGYUANJING(SKA)”ZHONGGUOQUYUZHONGXINDECHOUBEI,YIZHULIZHONGGUOKEXUEJIAZUOCHUYUANCHUANGXINGZHONGDAKEXUEFAXIAN。SKASHIGUOJITIANWENJIEJIHUAJIANZAODESHIJIEZUIDAZONGHEKONGJINGSHEDIANWANGYUANJING,JIESHOUZONGMIANJIDAYIPINGFANGGONGLI。“ZAIZHEIGEQUANQIUZUIDAKEXUEHEZUOJIHUAZHONG,BGSHIXUNWANGNENGFOUZHANYOUYIXIZHIDI?”ZHEISHIYESHUHUAZUIJINYIZHIZAISIKAODEWENTI。SKAMEITIANCHANSHENGDESHUJULIANGJIANGSHIQUANQIUHULIANWANGLIULIANGDE10BEI,DUIYUJISUANHECUNCHUDOUSHIHENDADETIAOZHAN。“BGSHIXUNWANGXIWANGZAISHANGHAIJIANLIYIGEQUYUXINGKEXUESHUJUZHONGXIN,BUXIANYUZHONGGUO,SHENZHIBUXIANYUYAZHOU。”TAIBEIZHINIAN,ZHEIWEIYIZHIBAMUGUANGTOUXIANGCANGQIONGDEKEXUEJIA,YIRANZHUANGXINBUYI。

  激发青少年天文兴趣

BG视讯网  YESHUHUACENGJINGSHUOGUO,KEXUEJIADEGONGZUOXIANGDANGYU380FUDIANYA,ZHIYOUBATABIANCHENG220FU,CAINENGWEIDAZHONGSUOYONG。TABUJINSHENTILIXINGZUOKEPU,HAICHANGYIBGSHIXUNWANGLESHANGHAIKEJIGUANYUSHANGHAITIANWENGUAN。

  SHANGSHIJI90NIANDAI,YESHUHUAHEYICHUANXUEJIATANJIAZHENYUANSHIXIANGSHILINGDAOJIANYAN,SHANGHAIYINGGAIYOUGEKEJICHENG,DUIGONGZHONGJINXINGKEPUJIAOYU,ZHEIZHENGSHI2001NIAN12YUEZHENGSHIDUIWAIKAIFANGDESHANGHAIKEJIGUAN。2010NIAN,TAYOUJIANYAN,SHENKONGTANCESHIGEGUOKEJIJINGZHENGDEZHONGYAO“SAICHANG”,XINGJIANSHANGHAITIANWENGUAN,NENGGOUJIFAQINGSHAONIANDUITIANWENXUEDEXINGQU,WEIBGSHIXUNWANGGUOSHENKONGTANCEPEIYANGHOUBEIRENCAI。JINNIAN6YUE23RI,SHANGHAITIANWENGUANTONGGUOJUNGONGYANSHOU,ZHEIYIQUANQIUZUIDATIANWENGUANJIANGYUMINGNIANKAIGUAN。ZHEIYITIAN,93SUIDEYESHUHUARAOYOUXINGZHIDIQULEXIANCHANG。ZHEISHIYIZUOMEIYOUWEIQIANGDETIANWENGUAN,ZHENGRUYUZHOUDEWUBIANWUJI。YIZUOKEYIRONGNA350RENDEQIUMUYINGYUAN,JIU“XUANFU”ZAIBANKONGZHONG。“BUGUANSHISHEI,LAILEZHEILIDOUNENGYOUSUODE,ZHEICAISHIYOUSHENGMINGLIDETIANWENGUAN。”YESHUHUASHUO。

BG视讯网  YANGWANGCANGQIONG,YOUYIKEBEIGUOJIXIAOXINGXINGZUZHIMINGMINGDE“YESHUHUAXING”ZAISHANSHUO。ZUOWEIYIMINGYU“SHIJIAN”“KONGJIAN”DALEYIBEIZIJIAODAODETIANWENREN,YESHUHUAZHIJINHAIZAIZHUIXUN,ZAIYOUXIANDESHIJIANHEKONGJIANLIDUOZUOYIXIEYUGUOYUMINYOUJIAZHIDESHIQING。

(YUANZAIYU《JIEFANGRIBAO》 2019-11-23 06BAN)

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