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面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先BG视讯网国际一流科研机构。

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BG视讯网  > 科学普及 > 科普文章

考古中的高科技“神器”

2019-11-26 光明日报
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  考古学是通过分析古代物质遗存来研究人类历史的科学,其源头可以上溯至欧洲的古物学和中国的金石学。19世纪,自然科学的发展促进了考古学的成熟,地质学中的地层学和生物学中的分类学被引入到考古学中,形成了考古地层学和器物分析的类型学,现代考古学从此开端。可以说,考古学与生俱来就与自然科学密不可分。

  考古学对古代遗存的信息提取,离不开以田野发掘、整理研究为主的传统考古和理化分析为主的科技考古,后者的工作开展是建立在前者坚实的工作基础之上的。数理化天地生等自然科学领域中的诸多方法都能在考古学中找到用武之地,考古学的发展越来越离不开科技方法的介入。科技考古现在使用的检测方法有两种趋势,一是依赖专业人员进行实验和数据解读的前沿手段,比如古代基因组分析;二是易操作的小型检测设备,比如成分分析用的便携荧光光谱仪。从田野发掘、实物分析到有机分子的鉴定,科技手段为了解古代社会提供了丰富的信息,活化了历史场景。

  广域考古中的利器: 遥感技术

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  发现古物的制造奥秘: 同步辐射光源

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  植物考古中的好帮手: 显微镜和质谱

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